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## Core latex/pdflatex auxiliary files:
## Intermediate documents:
# these rules might exclude image files for figures etc.
## Generated if empty string is given at "Please type another file name for output:"
## Bibliography auxiliary files (bibtex/biblatex/biber):
## Build tool auxiliary files:
## Build tool directories for auxiliary files
# latexrun
## Auxiliary and intermediate files from other packages:
# algorithms
# achemso
# amsthm
# beamer
# changes
# comment
# cprotect
# elsarticle (documentclass of Elsevier journals)
# endnotes
# fixme
# feynmf/feynmp
# glossaries
# uncomment this for glossaries-extra (will ignore makeindex's style files!)
# *.ist
# gnuplot
# gnuplottex
# gregoriotex
# htlatex
# hyperref
# knitr
# TODO Uncomment the next line if you use knitr and want to ignore its generated tikz files
# *.tikz
# listings
# luatexja-ruby
# makeidx
# minitoc
# minted
# morewrites
# newpax
# nomencl
# pax
# pdfpcnotes
# sagetex
# scrwfile
# svg
# sympy
# pdfcomment
# pythontex
# tcolorbox
# thmtools
# TikZ & PGF
# titletoc
# todonotes
# vhistory
# easy-todo
# xcolor
# xmpincl
# xindy
# xypic precompiled matrices and outlines
# endfloat
# Latexian
## Editors:
# WinEdt
# Texpad
# LyX
# Kile
# gummi
# KBibTeX
# TeXnicCenter
# auto folder when using emacs and auctex
# expex forward references with \gathertags
# standalone packages
# Makeindex log files
# xwatermark package
# REVTeX puts footnotes in the bibliography by default, unless the nofootinbib
# option is specified. Footnotes are the stored in a file with suffix Notes.bib.
# Uncomment the next line to have this generated file ignored.
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# posterExample
This repo contains a complete example for `\usetheme{ReglerPoster}`
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# Editing this README
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\title{Biomimetic Fabrication using Robotic 3D-printing}
\author{Anton Tetov Johansson\quad Ana Goidea\quad
Anders Robertsson\quad David Andréen}
\institute{Department of Architecture and Built Environment \& Department of Automatic Control, Lund University}\begin{document}
Termites placing clay. © Kirstin Petersen
In this project we explore swarm construction using an agent
model acting as a virtual twin to a concurrently 3D-printed
structure. We develop methods for real-time nonlinear design
and fabrication strategies with two-way feedback between the
output structure and the simulated design space.
Architectural processes are typically linear, with the design
stage concluding before the initiation of
construction. Similarly, the construction process itself
follows a linear logic. This is sometimes limiting, for
example because of dynamic behaviour of some materials (such
as the shrinking of clay/mud), complex design/fabrication
demands, or the evolving use and state of a building over
longer periods.
This project aims to develop a process which relies on fully
nonlinear design and fabrication, and incorporates complete
feedback loops between the fabricated output and a temporally
and spatially aligned digital twin. The process is modelled on
the self-organised construction process through which
macrotermites construct their mounds: physiologically and
formally complex structures that perform critical functions
for the termite colonies in variable and dynamic environments
(Andréen et al. 2019).
Three distinct processes are part of the method: 1. Additive
fabrication through discrete deposition of clay
globules. 2. Collection of sensory data and its translation
into the virtual twin. 3. Concurrent and real-time design
through a bottom-up agent simulation whose actions are
executed through the robotic 3D-printing.
The 3D-printing process uses an off-the-shelf clay extruder
mounted on a robotic arm to deposit discrete
globules. Extruding non-continuously allows for processing
of sensory input in the virtual twin in order to determine
the following actions, and because of the discrete
deposition the spatio-temporal continuity can be broken,
enabling the use of a nondeterministic design process as
well as correcting for or avoiding distortion.
Example of rule based design generation where blocks stacked.
Discrete clay depositions with 3D-printer.
\begin{block}{Method (Continued)}
The sensory data is recorded through the use of a stereo
camera system, recording depth data and colour. The recorded
data can then be interpreted as, for instance; material
localization, material composition, or moisture
content. This is then used to construct a multi-parameter
volumetric model which is transferred into the digital twin.
The design model operates on the continuously updated
voxel-cloud. It is structured as a multi-agent system, where
the agents operate based on local data and coordinate
through indirect, stigmergic communication (Werfel \& Nagpal
2006). Once the agents decide on an action, this is
communicated to the robot and executed as a clay globule
extrusion, or a direct alteration of one of the volumetric
parameters directly in the voxel model. No specific rule set
is determined in this project, as the goal is to create a
flexible platform that combines the benefits of virtual
(e.g. Bonabeau et al. 1998) and physical (e.g. Werfel 2014)
swarm construction models.
Robot control, including path planning, is achieved using
open source tools of which most are part of ROS (Quigley et
al., 2009). This also includes the perception pipeline,
enhanced by OpenVDB (Museth, 2013) for voxel model
\begin{block} {Application}
The developed model is intended to be used in both direct
applications, such as improving the robustness with
regards to global and local distortion and enabling
adaptability in fabrication using dynamic materials (e.g
Adaptive Clay Formations, Johansson \& Morales 2021), or to
explore and investigate the possibilities of complex swarm
construction models inspired by biological design (Andréen
\& Goidea 2022).
Andréen, D., Goidea, A., Johansson, A., and Hildorsson,
E. (2019). Swarm materialization through discrete,
nonsequential additive fabrication. Proceedings - 2019 IEEE
4th International Workshops on Foundations and Applications
of Self* Systems, FAS*W 2019,
225–230. Andréen,
D., and Goidea, A. (2022). Principles of biological design as
a model for biodesign and biofabrication in
architecture. Architecture, Structures and Construction
2022, 1, 1–11.
Bonabeau, E., Theraulaz, G., Deneubourg, J., Franks, N. R.,
Rafelsberger, O., Joly, J., and Blanco, S. (1998). A model for
the emergence of pillars, walls and royal chambers in
termite nests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences, 353(1375),
Johansson, A. and Morales Zúñiga, E. 2021. Adaptive Clay
Formations. Master’s thesis, ETH Zürich / Lund
last accessed 2022-05-30
Museth, K. (2013) ‘VDB:
High-resolution sparse volumes with dynamic topology’, ACM
Transactions on Graphics, 32(3),
pp. 1–22.
Werfel, J., and Nagpal, R. (2006). Extended Stigmergy in
Collective Construction. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(2),
Werfel, J., Petersen, K., and Nagpal, R. (2014). Designing
Collective Behavior in a Termite-Inspired Robot Construction
Team. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343,
Quigley, M. et al. (2009) ‘ROS: an open-source Robot
Operating System’, in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on
Robotics and Automation (ICRA) Workshop on Open Source
Robotics. Kobe, Japan.
The Clay Extruder
Contact: David Andréen,
Research funded by
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